Welcome to Chemistry, an OpenStax resource. This textbook has been created with several goals in mind: accessibility, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging students toward high levels of academic scholarship. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong foundation in chemistry in an accessible format.

About OpenStax

OpenStax is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks go through a rigorous editorial publishing process. Our texts are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of today’s college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax is working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations. Since our launch in 2012 our texts have been used by millions of learners online and over 1,091 institutions worldwide.

About OpenStax’s Resources

OpenStax resources provide quality academic instruction. Three key features set our materials apart from others: they can be customized by instructors for each class, they are a “living” resource that grows online through contributions from educators, and they are available free or for minimal cost.


OpenStax Accessibility Statement


OpenStax learning resources are designed to be customized for each course. Our textbooks provide a solid foundation on which instructors can build, and our resources are conceived and written with flexibility in mind. Instructors can select the sections most relevant to their curricula and create a textbook that speaks directly to the needs of their classes and student body.

This course Chemistry 112, will remove the first 11 chapters of the textbook. You will be required to read chapters 12- 17 for this course.

  • Chapter 12: Kinetics
  • Chapter 13: Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
  • Chapter 14: Acid-Base Equilibria
  • Chapter 15: Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
  • Chapter 16: Thermodynamics
  • Chapter 17: Electrochemistry
  • Chapter 18: Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
  • Chapter 19: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
  • Chapter 20: Organic Chemistry
  • Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry

Our textbooks are available for free online, and in low-cost print and e-book editions.

Pedagogical Foundation
Throughout Chemistry, you will find features that draw the students into scientific inquiry by taking selected topics a step further.

  • Chemistry in Everyday Life ties chemistry concepts to everyday issues and real-world applications of science that students encounter in their lives. Topics include cell phones, solar thermal energy power plants, plastics recycling, and measuring blood pressure.
  • How Sciences Interconnect feature boxes discuss chemistry in context of its interconnectedness with other scientific disciplines. Topics include neurotransmitters, greenhouse gases and climate change, and proteins and enzymes.
  • Portrait of a Chemist features present a short bio and an introduction to the work of prominent figures from history and present day so that students can see the “face” of contributors in this field as well as science in action.

Comprehensive Art Program
Our art program is designed to enhance students’ understanding of concepts through clear, effective illustrations, diagrams, and photographs.








Interactives That Engage
Chemistry incorporates links to relevant interactive exercises and animations that help bring topics to life through our Link to Learning feature. Examples include:

  • PhET simulations
  • IUPAC data and interactives
  • TED talks

Assessments That Reinforce Key Concepts
In-chapter Examples walk students through problems by posing a question, stepping out a solution, and then asking students to practice the skill with a “Check Your Learning” component. The book also includes assessments at the end of each chapter so students can apply what they’ve learned through practice problems.


Our resources are continually expanding, so please visit to view an up-to-date list of the Learning Resources for this title and to find information on accessing these resources.

About Our Team

Content Leads

Paul Flowers, PhD, University of North Carolina – Pembroke

Dr. Paul Flowers earned a BS in Chemistry from St. Andrews Presbyterian College in 1983 and a PhD in Analytical Chemistry from the University of Tennessee in 1988. After a one-year postdoctoral appointment at Los Alamos National Laboratory, he joined the University of North Carolina–Pembroke in the fall of 1989. Dr. Flowers teaches courses in general and analytical chemistry, and conducts experimental research involving the development of new devices and methods for microscale chemical analysis.

Klaus Theopold, PhD, University of Delaware

Dr. Klaus Theopold (born in Berlin, Germany) received his Vordiplom from the Universität Hamburg in 1977. He then decided to pursue his graduate studies in the United States, where he received his PhD in inorganic chemistry from UC Berkeley in 1982. After a year of postdoctoral research at MIT, he joined the faculty at Cornell University. In 1990, he moved to the University of Delaware, where he is a Professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and serves as an Associate Director of the University’s Center for Catalytic Science and Technology. Dr. Theopold regularly teaches graduate courses in inorganic and organometallic chemistry as well as General Chemistry.

Richard Langley, PhD, Stephen F. Austin State University

Dr. Richard Langley earned BS degrees in Chemistry and Mineralogy from Miami University of Ohio in the early 1970s and went on to receive his PhD in Chemistry from the University of Nebraska in 1977. After a postdoctoral fellowship at the Arizona State University Center for Solid State Studies, Dr. Langley taught in the University of Wisconsin system and participated in research at Argonne National Laboratory. Moving to Stephen F. Austin State University in 1982, Dr. Langley today serves as Professor of Chemistry. His areas of specialization are solid state chemistry, synthetic inorganic chemistry, fluorine chemistry, and chemical education.

Senior Contributing Author
William R. Robinson, PhD

Contributing Authors

Mark Blaser, Shasta College

Simon Bott, University of Houston

Donald Carpenetti, Craven Community College

Andrew Eklund, Alfred University

Emad El-Giar, University of Louisiana at Monroe

Don Frantz, Wilfrid Laurier University

Paul Hooker, Westminster College

Jennifer Look, Mercer University

George Kaminski, Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Carol Martinez, Central New Mexico Community College

Troy Milliken, Jackson State University

Vicki Moravec, Trine University

Jason Powell, Ferrum College

Thomas Sorensen, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee

Allison Soult, University of Kentucky

Contributing Reviewers
Casey Akin, College Station Independent School District

Lara AL-Hariri, University of Massachusetts–Amherst

Sahar Atwa, University of Louisiana at Monroe

Todd Austell, University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill

Bobby Bailey, University of Maryland–University College

Robert Baker, Trinity College

Jeffrey Bartz, Kalamazoo College

Greg Baxley, Cuesta College

Ashley Beasley Green, National Institute of Standards and Technology

Patricia Bianconi, University of Massachusetts

Lisa Blank, Lyme Central School District

Daniel Branan, Colorado Community College System

Dorian Canelas, Duke University

Emmanuel Chang, York College

Carolyn Collins, College of Southern Nevada

Colleen Craig, University of Washington

Yasmine Daniels, Montgomery College–Germantown

Patricia Dockham, Grand Rapids Community College

Erick Fuoco, Richard J. Daley College

Andrea Geyer, University of Saint Francis

Daniel Goebbert, University of Alabama

John Goodwin, Coastal Carolina University

Stephanie Gould, Austin College

Patrick Holt, Bellarmine University

Kevin Kolack, Queensborough Community College

Amy Kovach, Roberts Wesleyan College

Judit Kovacs Beagle, University of Dayton

Krzysztof Kuczera, University of Kansas

Marcus Lay, University of Georgia

Pamela Lord, University of Saint Francis

Oleg Maksimov, Excelsior College

John Matson, Virginia Tech

Katrina Miranda, University of Arizona

Douglas Mulford, Emory University

Mark Ott, Jackson College

Adrienne Oxley, Columbia College

Richard Pennington, Georgia Gwinnett College

Rodney Powell, Coastal Carolina Community College

Jeanita Pritchett, Montgomery College–Rockville

Aheda Saber, University of Illinois at Chicago

Raymond Sadeghi, University of Texas at San Antonio

Nirmala Shankar, Rutgers University

Jonathan Smith, Temple University

Bryan Spiegelberg, Rider University

Ron Sternfels, Roane State Community College

Cynthia Strong, Cornell College

Kris Varazo, Francis Marion University

Victor Vilchiz, Virginia State University

Alex Waterson, Vanderbilt University

JuchaoYan, Eastern New Mexico University

Mustafa Yatin, Salem State University

Kazushige Yokoyama, State University of New York at Geneseo

Curtis Zaleski, Shippensburg University

Wei Zhang, University of Colorado–Boulder


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