Chapter 1

Spanish 1 Review Guide

Common Greetings

Saludos Greetings

A table that states common spanish greetings, and the english translations.
Hola Hello
Buenos días Good morning
Buenas tardes Good afternoon
Buenas noches Good evening

Expresiones de Cortesía | Courtesy Expressions

A table that states spanish curtesy expressions.
Por favor Please
Lo siento I am sorry
Con permiso Excuse me
Gracias, Muchas gracias Thank you, Thank you very much
De nada You are welcome
Perdón Pardon me

Despedidas Goodbyes

A table that states spanish goodbye phrases, accompanied with the english translations.
Adiós Goodbye
Hasta luego So long
Hasta pronto See you soon
Hasta mañana Until tomorrow

The Alphabet

The Alphabet: : there are thirty letters

A table that displays the first fifteen letters in the spanish alphabet, with the phonetically spelled out pronunciation.
a a
b be
c ce
ch che
d de
e e
f efe
g ge
h hache
i i
j jota
k ka
l ele
ll elle
m eme
A table that displays the last fifteen letters in the spanish alphabet, with the phonetically spelled out pronunciation.
n ene
ñ eñe
o o
p pe
q cu
r ere
rr erre
s ese
t te
u u
v ve
w doble be
x equis
y i griega
z zeta

The Vowels

A table that displays the vowels in the alphabet, accompanied with examples of the vowel used in words where the pronunciation matches that of the spanish alphabet
A a Like in banana
E e Like in olé
I i Like in Indiana
O o Like in loco
U u Like Urugüay

Exceptions

A table that displays exceptions to the alphabet letter pronunciation rules
C c celery and cilantro
G g hello and history
 h silent
J (h) hi!
ll (y) yes
ñ (ny) canyon
qu (ny) king
v (b) burro
z (s) sail

Some words in Spanish are long and might have some letter combinations that you are not familiar or are not found in the English language. Therefore, practicing the most basic way to separate a word into syllables is important for knowing how the letters combine together for correct pronunciation as well as when a word may need an orthographic accent or not.

As often as possible, create each syllable with a consonant followed by a vowel.

  • sá-ba-do
  • ma’-no
  • ca’-ra

Geography

A table of spanish speaking countries in Europe.
Europa
España
África
Guinea
Ecuatorial
A table of spanish speaking countries in North America.
Norte América
Mexico
Puerto Rico
Cuba
República Dominicana
A table of spanish speaking countries in Central America.
Centro América
Guatemala
El Salvador
Honduras
Nicaragüa
Costa Rica
A table of spanish speaking countries in South America.
Sur América
Venezuela
Columbia
Ecuador
Perú
Bolivia
Chile
Argentina
Paragüay
Urugäy

The Calendar

Calendar

  • Days of the week
lunes, martes, miércoles, jueves, viernes, sábado y domingo
  • Months of the year
enero, febrero, marzo, abril, mayo, junio, julio, agosto, septiembre, octubre, noviembre y diciembre
  • Seasons

el invierno, la primavera, el verano y el otoño

**Always written in lower case, unless they start a sentence**

Vocabulary

A table that displays spanish vocabulary words relating to the calendar.
El calendario The calendar
La semana The week
El fin de semana The weekend
Los días de la semana The days of the week
El mes y los meses The month and the months

The Numbers

Numerals

a table that displays numerals starting at zero and ending at nineteen. Accompanied with the spanish word for the number.
0 cero 1 uno
2 dos 3 tres
4 cuatro 5 cinco
6 seis 7 siete
8 ocho 9 nueve
10 diez 11 once
12 dose 13 trece
14 catorce 15 quince
16 dieciséis 17 diecisiete
18 dieciocho 19 diecinueve
  • uno, or any number ending in uno, drops the final o when followed by a masculine noun, veintún libros

Cardinals

A table that displays Cardinal numbers.
20 veinte
21 veintiún(o)
22 veintidós
30 treinta
31 treinta y un(o)
32 treinta y dos
40 cuarenta
50 cincuenta
60 sesenta
70 setenta
80
ochenta
90
noventa
A table that displays numbers from 100 to 2,000.
100 cien
200 doscientos, as
300 trescientos, as
400 cuatrocientos, as
500 quinientos
600 seiscientos, as
700 setecientos
800 ochocientos
900 novecientos
1000 mil
2000 dos mil
1,000,000 un millión(de)

 

Ordinals

A table that displays ordinal numbers.
1ro
primero
2do
segundo
3ro
tercero
4to
cuarto
5to
quinto
6to
sexto
7mo
séptimo
8vo
octavo
9no
noveno
10mo
décimo

Telling Time

Telling Time

a table that displays common time telling phrases in spanish.
¿Qué hora es? What time is it?
All hours begin: Son las…
Except for Es la una…
En punto (on-the dot) O’clock
To express time: hour+“y”+minutes
15=quince or cuarto
30=treinta/media
45=cuarenta y cinco/menos cuarto

To Express Time

A table that displays common spanish phrases for expressing time.
de la mañana A.M.
de la tarde P.M.
de la noche P.M.
la medianoche midnight
el mediodía noon

To tell at what time something happens

A table that displays a few spanish phrases.
¿A qué hora es la clase de español?
1:00 P.M. Es a la una de la tarde.
2:15 P.M. Es a las dos y quince de la tarde.

The Body

A table that displays parts of the head in spanish.

la cabeza

the head

la cara the face
los ojos the eyes
la nariz the nose
la boca the mouth
el cuello the neck
this tables displays the shoulders section of the body and its parts.

los hombros

the shoulders

los brazos the arms
los codos the elbows
las muñecas the wrists
las manos the hands
los dedos the fingers
el pecho the chest
The table displays the parts of the belly section of the body.

la barriga

the belly

laespalda the back
las piemas the legs
las rodillas the knees
los tobillos the ankles
los pies the feet
los dedos the toes

The Family and The Possessives

Possessive adjectives

A table that displays possessive adjectives.
My mi(s)
Your tu(s) (informal)
Your su (formal)
His, Her su
Its su
Our nuestro/a (s)
Their sus

Family

A table that displays different family member titles.
el abuelo / la abuela / los abuelos grandfather / grandmother / grandparents
el padre / la madre / los padres father / mother / parents
el hermano / la hermana / los hermanos brother / sister / siblings
el tío / la tía / los tíos uncle(s) / aunt(s)
el primo / la prima / los primos cousin(s)
el esposo/la exposa/los esposos husband / wife / spouces
el hijo/ la hija / los hijos son / daughter / children
el sobrino / la sobrina / los sobrinos nephew(s) / niece(s)
casado / a(s) married

 

The Articles

Articles

agree in gender and number with the noun that they are modified

A table that displays spanish articles.
Article Type Singular Plural
Definite el/la (the) los/las
Indefinite un / una (a, an) unos, unas

 

Adjectives

Adjectives

  • An adjective describes a noun, and ALMOST always follow the noun it describes
  • It agrees in gender and number with the nouns it modifies.
  • MOST end in -o or -a, if not, the same form describes both, masuline and feminine nouns.
  • The verb ser (to be), in Spanish, is used with adjectives that describe basic, characteristics or inherent qualities of the noun they modify.
A table that displays the adjectives that convey “to be”.
To be Ser
I am yo soy
You are
tú eres
He, she, it is usted, él, ella es
We are nosotros somos
They are ustedes, ellos (as) son

The Nouns

Nouns

A noun is a person, place, or thing, characterized by gender and number; nouns, are not perceived by Spanish speakers, as having male or female attributes; is just grammatical feature. Most nouns ending in: -o or -ma are masculine, -a or -ión /-dad /-tad /-tud are feminine. There are some exceptions to this rule. A singular noun can be converted into a plural noun. If the noun ends in:

a vowel add -s

a consonant add -es

a -z, change the -z for a -c, and apply the consonant rule.

Plural Nouns

a table that displays nouns.
Vowel + -s libros
Consonant + -es universidades
-z eliminate the -z + c lápiz = lapices
The article must agree with the noun in number as well

Nationality Adjectives

Nationality Adjectives

  • Are gender and number specific, and are not capitalized unless they start a sentence.
  • The verb Ser is used to describe where you and others are from.
A table that displays nationalities of North America.
Norte América
norteamericano/a
canadiense
estadounidenses
mexicano/a
A table that displays the nationalities of the Caribbean.
El Caribe
caribeño
puertorriqueño/a
cubano/a
dominicano/a
A table that displays the nationalities of Central America.
Centro América
centroamericano/a
guatemaltoeco/a
hondureño
salvadoreño
nicaragüense
costarricense
panameño
A table that displays the nationalities of South America.
Sur América
suraméricano/a
venezolano/a
colombiano/a
ecuatoriano/a
peruano/a
boliviano/a
chilenjo/a
argentino/a
uruüayo/a
paragüayo/a

 

A table that displays the nationalities of Europe and Africa.
Europa África
 europeo/a  africano/a
 español/a  ecuatoguineano/a

Subject Pronouns

A table that displays subject pronouns.
I yo
You
He, she, it usted, él, ella
We nosotros
They ustedes, ellos (as)

Ser and Estar

A table that displays irregular verbs.
Subject Pronoun Estar Ser
Yo estoy soy
estás eres
Ud, él, ella está es
Nosotros estamos somos
Uds, ellos/as están son
  • Irregular verbs are characterized by a “y” or a “g” on First person singular in the present tense.

Interrogative Words

All interrogative words have a written accent and an inverted question mark at the beginning of the question as well.

A table that displays interrogative words.
¿Cómo? How?
¿Dónde? Where?
¿De dónde? From where…?
¿Adónde…? To where?
¿Quién? ¿Quiénes? Who?
¿Qué? What?
¿Cuál? Which, which one?
¿Cuáles? Which ones?
¿Pór qué? Why?
¿Cuánto? How much?
¿Cuántos?
How many?
¿Cuándo?
When?

Gustar

Gustar and Indirect Object Pronouns

a table that displays indirect object pronouns.
Yo Me
Te gusta (s)
Ud./él/ella Le gustan (p)
Nosotros/as Nos
Uds/ellos/as Les

Gustar and “A” + Indirect Object Pronouns

A table that displays indirect object pronouns.
A mí me
A tí te
A(Ud./él/ella)
le
A nosotros/as
nos
A (Uds./ellos/as)
les

Present Tense

Present Tense of Regular Verbs

A table that displays the present tense of regular verbs.
Subject pronoun -ar -er -ir
yo o o o
as es es
Ud./él/ella a e e
nosotros amos emos imos
Uds.ellos/as an en en

Irregular Verbs

a table that displays irregular spanish verbs.
Subject pronoun estar tener salir
yo oy go go
 tú as es es
Ud./él/ella a e e
nosotros amos emos imos
Uds.ellos/as an en en

Reflexive Pronouns

a table that displays reflexive pronouns.
Yo me
te
Ud./él/ella se
Nosotros nos
Uds./ellos/as se
a table of reflexive pronouns
Lavarse Levantarse Dormirse Graduarse
Peinarse Acostarse Bañarse Casarse

 

The Verb “Ir”

Ir + a + place

A table that displays examples of “IR + A + Place”.
Voy a la biblioteca
Vas a la biblioteca
Va a la biblioteca
Vamos a la biblioteca
Van a la biblioteca

Ir +a + infinitive

A table that displays examples of “IR + A + Infinitive”.
Voy a a estudiar
Vas a a estudiar
Va a a estudiar
Vamos a a estudiar
Van a a estudiar

The Verb “Tener”

Tener

a table that displays info on the spanish verb “Tener”
yo tengo
tienes
Ud./él/ella tiene
nosotros tenemos
Uds./ellos/as tienen
Frío Calor Hambre Sueño Prisa Sed Miedo
  • Possession Something to do… “Tengo que+ infinitive”

The Present Progressive

A table that displays info on the verb “estar”
Before the present progressive Prefix In the present progressive(-ando/-iendo)
estoy habiar= habiando
estás comer= comiendo
está escribir= escribiendo

License

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Spanish 002 by Ana Serrano is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.