Review Questions Repository

Review Questions

  • What are the four models of PR and the four stages of a typical PR campaign?
  • Analyze the role (or roles) of PR in media and culture.
  • In what ways is PR taking the place of traditional advertising?
  • What is branding and how is it important to PR?
  • How is PR used in the news media?
  • In which ways is PR used in politics?
  • How did advertising shape early consumer culture during the 1920s?
  • Explain how government legislation has regulated advertisements and their claims.
  • How did the creative revolution of the 1960s change advertising?
  • How did the multiple-sponsor format change TV?
  • Give an example of a digital media format and explain how it has incorporated advertising.
  • What PR model did P. T. Barnum utilize the most?
  • Which phase of a PR campaign involves creating objectives?
  • What was the focus of BP’s PR campaign before the 2010 oil spill?
  • What are some of the key components of Apple’s branding strategy?
  • How would you describe Barack Obama’s brand during the 2008 presidential campaign?
  • Explain the concept of integrated marketing communications.
  • How is the media used by organizations changing? What age group is driving the change?
  • What factors are causing the media landscape to change?
  • What are some different types of online media? Which types are most popular with college students?
  • Define each component of the promotion (communication) mix.
  • Why is public relations considered a key part of the promotion mix?
  • Explain the communication process and factors that can interfere with interpretation of messages.
  • What is the perceptual process and how does it relate to promotion?
  • What is the difference between encoding and decoding a message?
  • Why do you think so many organizations rely on advertising to communicate with customers and potential customers?
  • What is the difference between a medium and a vehicle? Give examples of each.
  • Why is direct marketing successful even though some consumers may not like it?
  • Identify the different promotion objectives companies may use.
  • What are some of the message strategies organizations use?
  • What is the difference between an open-ended and a closed-ended message?
  • Explain four different ways to set a product’s promotion budget.
  • What is mobile marketing?
  • What are the objectives of sales promotions?
  • What is a trade promotion?
  • Identify and provide an example of three sales promotion tools targeted at consumers.
  • Identify and provide an example of three sales promotion tools targeted at businesses.
  • Explain the difference between a push strategy and a pull strategy.
  • Why are public relations efforts funded by firms?
  • Who does the public relations for a firm?
  • Why are sponsorships becoming more popular?
  • What is social commerce and how do you as a customer use it?
  • Why do you think Facebook is the most popular social media networking site?
  • How would you define social media?

Critical Thinking Questions

  • Do you think that government regulation of advertising is justified? Explain your answer.
  • In your opinion, would most Americans give up their privacy in order to retain free, advertiser-supported services such as e-mail? Explain your answer.
  • Do you think that print media can survive without traditional forms of advertising? Explain your answer.
  • How do you think branding has affected American culture?
  • How has branding affected political discourse in the United States?

Career Connection

  • Advertising has had an enormous influence on the ways that people present and imagine themselves. Personal branding has become an industry, with consultants and coaches ready to help anyone find his or her own brand. Creating a personal brand is a useful way to assess your skills and feelings about the advertising or PR professions.
  • Research the term personal brand using a search engine. Look for strategies that would help you construct your own brand. Imagine that you are a brand and describe what that brand offers. This does not need to be limited to professional capacities, but should represent your personal philosophy and life experiences. In 15 words or less, write a description of your brand.
  • Answer the following questions about your brand description:
  • How well does the brand description capture your personality?
  • How appealing do you think this brand would be to potential employers?
  • How appealing do you think this brand would be to potential friends?
  • Are you comfortable with the idea of promoting your own brand? Explain your answer.
  • How do you think the personal branding process is different from or similar to the corporate branding process?

Discussion Questions

  • Provide an example of how an organization, such as your university, uses different media to present a consistent message using integrated marketing communications (IMC). Who is their target, what is their message, and what media should they use?
  • In your opinion, what are the advantages and disadvantages of advertising on the radio, in magazines, on television, through direct marketing, and on the Internet?
  • Give an example of an organization’s promotional strategy and how it gets consumers to select it, pay attention to it, and retain it as intended.
  • Give an example of the unique selling proposition for one of your favorite brands. What is your unique selling proposition?
  • Explain why companies might use different budgeting methods to set their promotional budgets.
  • Think about and provide examples of two different message strategies you’ve seen in commercials in the last year. Why do you think they were or were not effective?
  • As the manufacturer of small appliances, explain how you might plan to use both a push strategy and pull strategy.
  • What type of sales promotions do you feel are most effective for college students?
  • Explain three different types of public relations tools that a company can use to generate interest in its products.
  • What types of sponsorships are becoming more popular and why?
  • How can an organization use all four social media zones?
  • What are the risks of posting information on social media?


  • Identify your three favorite and least favorite commercials and explain why you like or don’t like each one. Notice whether there are similarities in your preferences. In other words, are your favorite commercials humorous? Are your least favorite commercials annoying?
  • Create a message strategy for a cover letter to go with your résumé.
  • Outline three message strategies that you feel would get consumers’ attention in television commercials and in print ads.
  • Create a sales promotion you think will attract a lot of students to your favorite fast-food restaurant.
  • You are applying for a job in an advertising agency. Write an ad about yourself, explaining your unique selling proposition and why they should hire you.
  • Watch television at three different times (late night, mid-day, and prime time). What types of commercials were shown at each time? Did you notice a difference in quality, products/services advertised, or creativity? Why do you think there was a variance?
  • What media do you think would be most (and least) effective for college students? Why?
  • Create a product review or a blog for your favorite fast-food restaurant that you would like other people to see on social media. Where would you post it?
  • Write a press release about special activities your college or university is doing to help the environment or community.
  • Identify your favorite television show and explain what product placements you think would be successful. Would you change your recommended product placements if you were making recommendations for shows that appealed more to parents or grandparents?
  • You’ve been asked to create a new social media networking site. What would you name the site and what would you suggest to make it better than existing sites?


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The Evolving World of Public Relations : Beyond the Press Release Copyright © by Professor Rosemary Martinelli is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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