Week 6 Readings
FOUR STEPS OF GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE PREPARATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
The geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) preparation of the environment analytic method is based on, and provides GEOINT support to, the joint intelligence preparation of the operational environment process.
1. Define the Environment: Gather basic facts needed to outline the exact location of the mission or area of interest. Physical, political, and ethnic boundaries must be determined. The data might include grid coordinates, latitude and longitude, vectors, altitudes, natural boundaries (mountain ranges, rivers, shorelines), etc. This data serves as the foundation for the GEOINT product.
2. Describe Influences of the Environment: Provide descriptive information about the area defined in Step 1. Identify existing natural conditions, infrastructure, and cultural factors. Consider all details that may affect a potential operation in the area: weather, vegetation, roads, facilities, population, languages, social, ethnic, religious, and political factors. Layer this information onto the foundation developed
in Step 1.
3. Assess Threats and Hazards: Add intelligence and threat data, drawn from multiple intelligence disciplines, onto the foundation and descriptive information layers (the environment established in the first two steps). This information includes: order-of-battle; size and strength of enemy or threat; enemy doctrine; the nature, strength, capabilities and intent of area insurgent groups; effects of possible chemical/biological threats. Step 3 requires collaboration with national security community counterparts.
4. Develop Analytic Conclusions: Integrate all information from Steps 1-3 to develop analytic conclusions. The emphasis is on developing predictive analysis. In Step 4, the analyst may create models to examine and assess the likely next actions of the threat, the impact of those actions, and the feasibility and impact of countermeasures to threat actions.