The Dick and Carey Model was first proposed in the book The Systematic Design of Instruction published in 1978 by Walter Dick and Lou Carey. The model looks at instructional design as a systems view of instruction as opposed to the view of instruction as isolated parts. Similar to the Kemp model, the Dick and Carey model focuses on the interrelationship between elements in the design process. For the Dick and Carey model those elements are context, content, learning and instrction. Dick and Carey believe that the instrcutor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning work together to produce the desired outcomes. As seen in the illustration, the components of this model are executed iteratively and in parallel with each other.
The 10 Components of the Dick and Carey Model
- Identify the instructional goals- the skills, knowledge, and/or attitude that a learner will be expected to acquire.
- Conduct instructional analysis – identify what a learner must recalto perform a particular task.
- Analyze learners and contexts- what are the general characteristics of the learners including prior knowledge and skills need to meet the objectives.
- Performance objectives- writing an objective for the learner consists of three parts: the behavior, the condition, and the degree. Objectives must be measurable in order to accurately assess the performance.
- Develop the assessment tools- types of tests could pre-test- post-test, practice items, etc.
- Develop instructional strategies- pre-instrcution activites, content presentation, participations and assessment.
- Develop and select instructional materials.
- Design and conduct formative evaluation of instruction- identify areas of the instructional materials that are in need of improvement.
- Revise instruction based on poor test items and/or poor or unsuccessful instruction methods.
- Design and conduct summative evaluation.
The following presentation identifies the strenths and weakness of the Dick and Carey model with the Kemp model of design.
Dick, W., & Carey, L. (1996). The systematic design of instruction. 4th ed. New York, NY: Harper Collin Gustafson, K. and Branch, R. (1997) Revisioning Models of Instructional Development. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 45 (3), 73-89.
Mager, R. M. (1975). Preparing instructional objectives. Palo Alto, CA: Fearon Publishiners.
Reiser, R.A., & Gagne, C. R. M. (1983). Selecting media for instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.