Topic 2 Ser (to be) and Estar (to be)

Los verbos Ser y Estar

A table that displays Spanish subject pronouns, followed by the correct form of “Ser” to use with the specified pronoun.
yo soy
Ud, él, ella es
nosotros somos
Uds, ellos/as son
A table that displays spanish subject pronouns, followed by the correct form of “Estar” to use with the specified pronoun.
yo estoy
Ud, él, ella está
nosotros estamos
Uds, ellos/as están












Ser and Estar means to be. Ser and Estar in Spanish are used to express different concepts.
Carmen is smart.

Carmen es inteligente.

Carmen is here.

Carmen está aquí.


Ser is used to express the following concepts:

    • Description inherent qualities that define a person or thing
      • Name, physical, personality or characteristic descriptions,
        • El nombre de mi perro es Nene. The name of my dog is Nene.
        • Nene es pequeño. Nene is small.
        • Nene es inteligente y viejo. Nene is smart and old.
      • Occupation, religion, and relationship to other people
        • Juan es doctor. Juan is a doctor.
        • Ellos son católicos. They are Catholics.
        • Serena es mi amiga. Serena is my friend.
    • Origin the place a person is from
      • Soy de Panamá. I am from Panamá.


    • Material something is made from
      • La mesa es de metal. The table is made of metal.
    • Time and dates
      • Son las 2:10 de la tarde. It is 2:10 in the afternoon.
      • Es viernes 21 de noviembre. It is Friday the 21st of November.
    • Ownership
      • El libro es de la maestra. The book belongs to the teacher.


    Estar is used to express location, changing moods or condition, health and personal opinion

    • Location describes where someone or something is physically located
      • El libro está en la mesa. The book is on the table.
    • Changing moods and health
      • Estoy triste. I am sad.
      • Estoy enferma. I am sick.
    • Personal opinion
      • La clase está aburrida. The class is boring.




    Answer the following questions using your personal information and the appropriate form of ser and estar.

    1. ¿Cómo estás?
    2. ¿Cómo eres?
    3. ¿Eres estudiante o profesor?
    4. ¿Dónde están los libros


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Spanish 001 by Ana Ivette Serrano and Gisela Serrano-Lebrón is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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