Appendix B-17: Model Use: Author 4D Model

Author 4D Model

A process in which a 4D model (3D models with the added dimension of time) is utilized to effectively plan the phased occupancy in a renovation, retrofit, addition, or to show the construction sequence and space requirements on a building site. 4D modeling is a powerful visualization and communication tool that can give a project team, including the owner, a better understanding of project milestones and construction plans.

Potential Value:

  • Better understanding of the phasing schedule by the owner and project participants and showing the critical path of the project
  • Dynamic phasing plans of occupancy offering multiple options and solutions to space conflicts
  • Integrate planning of human, equipment and material resources with the BIM model to better schedule and cost estimate the project
  • Space and workspace conflicts identified and resolved ahead of the construction process
  • Marketing purposes and publicity
  • Identification of schedule, sequencing or phasing issues
  • More readily constructible, operable and maintainable project
  • Monitor procurement status of project materials
  • Increased productivity and decreased waste on job sites
  • Conveying the spatial complexities of the project, planning information, and support conducting additional analyses

Resources Required:

  • Design Authoring Software
  • Scheduling Software
  • 4D Modeling Software

Team Competencies Required:

  • Knowledge of construction scheduling and general construction process. A 4D model is connected to a schedule, and is therefore only as good as the schedule to which it is linked.
  • Ability to manipulate, navigate, and review a 3D model.
  • Knowledge of 4D software: import geometry, manage links to schedules, produce and control animations, etc.

Selected Resources:

  • Dawood, N., and Mallasi, Z. (2006). Construction Workplace Planning: Assignment and Analysis Utilizing 4D Visualization Technologies. Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, Pgs. 498-513.
  • Jongeling, R., Kim, J., Fischer, M., Morgeous, C., and Olofsson, T. (2008). Quantitative analysis of workflow, temporary structure usage, and productivity using 4D models. Automation in Construction, Pgs. 780-791.
  • Kang, J., Anderson, S., and Clayton, M. (2007). “Empirical Study on the Merit of Web-based 4D Visualization in Collaborative Construction Planning and Scheduling”. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. 447-461.


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BIM Project Execution Planning Guide, Version 3.0 Copyright © 2021 by Computer Integration Construction Program is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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