Systems Development Life Cycle

The single most important criterion for a successful deployment is that the users take ownership of the system. 


You are the Sponsor/Architect/PM and you know this is important. How do you make that happen?


You also know that somewhere around 50% of IT projects fail.

Others succeed functionally but overrun their budgets by 200 and 300 percent


How do you avoid being a statistic?

Why do they fail?


Why Do Projects Fail?

  • Determing requirements may be difficult
  • Changes in requirements throughout project life cycle
  • Scheduling and Budgeting Conflicts
  • Changing Technology
  • Scale diseconomies


Holistic broader approach to developing systems –

  • Technical – Software & Data = programming
  • Technical – Hardware maybe or outsource?
    • Vendor management
    • Metered Cloud
  • Business Process – modeling, mapping
  • Data Model
  • Project plan
  • Testing
  • User Roles
  • Training
  • Rollout Plan
  • Communications Plan


System definition – What does it do?

  • Goals, Objectives, Scope
  • Problem to Solve
  • Time Frame – Schedule feasibility
  • Cost feasibility (what are we willing to spend)

Requirements Analysis – BRD – How does it do it?

  • User/Stakeholder Interviews
  • Reports, Queries, Web Pages needed
  • Component Functionality
    • How would competitors get started
    • How do users sign in – match up
    • Security, user forgets password
  • Will requirements change over time?




Design  –    System Design

  • Architecture
  • Data Model
  • Security
  • Interfaces
  • Component Architecture
  • Functional Design Document – FDD
  • Prototype
  • Test Specifications – Use Cases – Begin design
  • Legacy Apps?
  • Hardware
  • Software
    • Develop
    • COTS



  • Develop Modules
  • Test Plan
  • For Each:
    • Unit Test
    • Developer
    • User
  • Assemble
    • Integration Testing
    • Developer
    • User
  • TAR Tracking
  • Regression Testing
  • QA
  • Alpha
  • Beta
  • Legacy Data
    • Prototype
    • Conversion Plan
    • Test
  • Migration/Conversion
  • QA
  • Release


  • Support/Change Requests
    • Bug Fix
    • Enhancements
  • Upgrade Cycles
  • Patch Management

A flow chart of the business planning process. Business Planning Process, to system needs, to system definition, to project plan, to requirement analysis, through approved user requirements to component design, through system design to implementation, to users, through problem or need for change to system maintenance, looping back to system definition in the flow chart.

Systems Development Life Cycle

Feasibility – Does this project make sense?
Eliminate obvious failures up front or remove obstacles to success.

  • Cost assess project cost vs Margin improvement – does Porter think it’s a good investment?
    • Are all projects evaluated on Rate of Return?
    • Prototype?
  • Schedule – How long will it take? Will need still be there?
    • Can we develop faster than requirements will change.
  • Technical – Can we make it work – buy vs build, integration strategies
    • How to match up gamers and show against each other?
  • Organizational – can organization accept the change?
    • Culture, Charter, Legal


Form Team

How is development team structured?

  • Airplane model?  EA
  • Integrations?
  • How many?
    • Diseconomies of scale
    • Brooks Law:  “Adding more people to a late project makes the project later
    • Schedules can only be compressed so far.
  • Triple constraint
    • Time
    • Function
    • Cost

Gather Requirements

  • Interview users
  • Create diagrams
  • Socialize
  • Users are notorious for being unable to describe what they do.
  • Users focus on most recent tasks
  • Tend to ignore Month End or Year end activities when mid month


Consider all 5 components

Hardware requirements

Separation of duties

Role definition



System definition to project plan to a requirement analysis. The requirement analysis has the following items listed: Conduct User Interviews, evauluate existing systems, determine new web pages / forms / reports / queries, Identify new application features and functions, considder security, create the data model, and consider all five components. Through approved user requiredments to component design.

Move From Requirements to Design


Requirement analysis flows through approved user requirements to component design. The component design has the following items listed: Determine hardware specifications, determine software specifications (depends on source), design the database, design procedures, and create job definitions. through system design, ends at implementation


Implentation components flowchart that starts at design components and through system design reaches implentation of the following items: Build System Components, Conduct Unit Test, Integrate Components, Conducted integrated test, conver to new system. Through the system being installed it reaches users.



  • Test Plan
    • Data
    • Scenarios
  • Testers
    • Function
    • Roles
  • Unit Test
  • System Test- integration
  • TAR (test analysis release)
  • Regression Test



  • Pilot
  • Phased
  • Parallel
  • Plunge or Hot Cut

Data Mapping

  • Work in progress
  • Year End
  • Mid Year





System maintenance items flowchart. Starting at users it flows through - problem or need for change to system maintenance with the following items: Record request for change - failures and enhancements, prioritize requests, fix failures - patches / service packs / new releases. System Maintenance flows to system definition.


MVP – Minimum Viable Product

From Minimum viable product to a refined product. Skateboard to automobile

Title: From Minimum Viable Product to a More Complex Product

Author: Teemu


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