Chapter 8: Fear, Anxiety, and Stress
- Does anxiety meet the requirements for an emotion? Why or why not?
- What is the relationship between anxiety and attentional biases?
- How are fear and anxiety similar? different?
- How does the research on anxiety help us to better understand psychological disorders?
Emotion Components for Fear and Anxiety
|Eliciting Event Required?||Yes!
|Cognitive Appraisals||“Something bad now, very soon”
|“Something bad in the future”
Less controllable, Expected, Can’t Cope,
|Behavior||Flee, desire to escape||Limited responses, dont know
how to cope
|Subjective Feelings||Unpleasant, highly
|Unpleasant highly arousing,
Perspectives of Emotion
In general, most emotion researchers believe anxiety is not a fleeting emotion. Basic emotions researchers such as Ekman further state anxiety does not meet the requirements for a basic emotion – particularly because universal facial expressions do not exist. Social constructivists point out the cultural differences in eliciting events, symptoms, and cognitive appraisals of panic attacks, an anxiety disorder (Lewis-Fernández et al., 2010). Table 9 shows eliciting events across world regions and their corresponding term in that culture’s language. Western cultures view anxiety as caused by unexpected events, whereas other cultures view anxiety as caused by expected events (such as standing up or the weather).
|World Region or Country||Cause of Panic Attacks||Cultural Term|
|Latin America||Interpersonal arguments and Major Life Changes||ataque de nervios|
|Cambodia||Standing up and Atmospheric Wind||khyâl (atmospheric wind causing dizziness, tinnitus, neck soreness)|
|Vietnam||Atmospheric Wind that causes headaches||trung gió|
|Japan and South Korea||Fear of offending someone else
due to own psychological/physical
character flaws (e.g., staring too
long, body odor) or showing
wrong facial expression
|Taijin kyofusho (TKS; Japanese for fear of interpersonal rejection)|
|United States||Major Life Changes||–|