Chapter 13: Positive Emotions
How Many Positive Emotions Exist?
Positive Emotions According to Emotion Researchers
|Researcher(s)||Number of Positive Emotions||List of Positive Emotions|
|Paul Ekman (Ekman & Cordaro, 2011)||10||sensory pleasure, happiness, amusement, excitement, wonder, ecstasy, naches (Yiddish – vicarious pride), fiero (Italian – achieving difficult challenge), schadenfreude, rejoicing|
|Barbara Fredrickson (2013)||10||joy, interest, contentment, gratitude, awe, amusement, inspiration, pride, hope, love|
|Eddie Tong (2014)||13||joy, interest, contentment, gratitude, awe, amusement, pride, hope, love, challenge, compassion, interest, relief, serenity|
Note. For a list of Ekman’s emotions and his views, read his interview with Cordaro,
Ekman, P., & Cordaro, D. (2011). What is meant by calling emotions basic. Emotion Review, 3, 364-370.
Lets get to know the positive emotions!
Below, is a list of definitions for several positive emotions. For each definition, select the emotion that best fits the definition and drag that emotion into the definition box.
Adapted from four sources: 1) “Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals,” E.M.W. Tong, 2014, Cognition and Emotion, 29(3), p. 487-489 (https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2014.922056) Copyright 2014 by Taylor & Francis, 2) “What good are positive emotions?” by B.L. Fredrickson, 1998, Review of General Psychology, 2(3), p. 370–309 (https//doi.org/ 10.1037/1089-2622.214.171.1240) Copyright 1998 by American Psychological Association, 3) “Positive emotions broaden and build,” by B.L. Fredrickson, In P. Devine and A. Plant (Eds.) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 47, p. 4, 6, Copyright 2013 Academic Press and 4) “What is meant by calling emotions basic,” P. Ekman and D. Cordaro, 2011, Emotion Review, 3(4), p. 365 (https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073911410740) Copyright 2011 by The Authors