Chapter 10: Disgust

The CAD Triad Hypothesis

Figure 18
Visual of CAD Triad Hypothesis
Autonomy / Anger - Violations of individual rights. Community / Contempt - Violations of communal codes. Divinity / Disgust - Violations of purity andd sanctity.

Community Violation:

occurs when another person does not uphold or behave in line with the duties established by their “community” or social hierarchy. These violations include disrespect toward authority figures and violation of social/cultural norms.

 

A person is hearing an 8-year old student speak to his/her teacher in the same way that he/she talks to her friends.

 

A person is seeing someone burn the American [Japanese] flag.

 

A person is hearing an oversensitive employee directly criticizing his/her boss.

 

A person just discovered a cleaning person, who thinks no one is watching, sitting in the chair of the company president.

 

A person is seeing a 16-year old refuse to give up his/her seat on the bus to a crippled old lady.

Adapted from “The CAD Triad Hypothesis: A mapping between three moral emotions (contempt, anger, disgust) and three moral codes (community, autonomy, divinity),” by P. Rozin, L. Lowery, S. Imada, and J. Haidt, 1999, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(4), p. 578 (https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.76.4.574)

 

Autonomy Violation:

occurs when another person directly violates the individual rights and freedoms of another person.  The person who is violated could include the self.

 

A person is scolding a child who hit another child.

 

A person is hearing about someone who put cyanide in a container of yogurt in the supermarket.

 

A person is being told about an acquaintance who embezzled from a bank.

 

A nonsmoker is sitting near a stranger who is smoking in the no-smoking section of a small waiting area.

 

A person is looking at a picture of the inmates at a World War II concentration camp being led into the gas chamber by the Nazis.

Adapted from “The CAD Triad Hypothesis: A mapping between three moral emotions (contempt, anger, disgust) and three moral codes (community, autonomy, divinity),” by P. Rozin, L. Lowery, S. Imada, and J. Haidt, 1999, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(4), p. 578 (https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.76.4.574)

 

Divinity Violation:

occurs when another person disrespects God or religion.  Also, occurs when people engage in acts that degrade the soul of the self or other people.  These violations include all four types of disgust.

 

A person is eating a piece of rotten meat.

 

A person is shaking hands with someone who has an incestuous relationship.

 

A person is touching a corpse.

Adapted from “The CAD Triad Hypothesis: A mapping between three moral emotions (contempt, anger, disgust) and three moral codes (community, autonomy, divinity),” by P. Rozin, L. Lowery, S. Imada, and J. Haidt, 1999, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(4), p. 578 (https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.76.4.574)

 

To test the CAD hypothesis, US and Japanese students read scenarios that included one of the three moral violations.  After reading each scenario, participants selected one of 6 facial expressions and one of three emotion labels to describe the scenario.  Each emotion was displayed in two different facial expressions – this allowed researchers to account for different combinations of AUs to represent the same emotion (remember, above we talked about how there may be several different disgust expressions).

Facial Expressions: 2 of anger, 2 of contempt, 2 of disgust.

 

Emotion Labels: Anger, Contempt, Disgust, No Emotion

The findings for the American participants are displayed below. These results were the same for the Japanese and American participants. For facial expressions, participants matched the facial expression to the correct violation at beyond chance levels. For emotion labels, participants matched the correct label to the correct violation for anger (58%) and disgust (79%; see Figure 19). But, participants did not select the contempt word label for the community violations at a beyond chance level. Interestingly, most participants (43%) labeled the community violations as “no emotion.”

 

Figure 19
Results for Facial Expressions (Top) and Word Labels (Bottom) for American Participants (Rozin et al., 1999).
Community: U.S. Facial Expressions - 66% contempt, 27% anger, 8% disgust. Autonomy: U.S. Facial Expressions - 28% contempt, 57% anger, 15% disgust. Divinity: U.S. Facial Expressions - 19% contempt, 10% anger, 71% disgust

Community Violation: U.S. Word Labels
A pie graph. No emotion - 43%. Contempt - 28%. Disgust - 9%. Anger - 20%

Autonomy Violations: U.S. World Labels
Disgust - 10%. No Emotion - 13%. Contempt - 19%. Anger - 58%

Divinity Violations: U.S. Word Labels

No emotion - 16%. Contempt - 3%. Anger - 2%. Disgust - 79%.

Adapted from “The CAD Triad Hypothesis: A mapping between three moral emotions (contempt, anger, disgust) and three moral codes (community, autonomy, divinity),” by P. Rozin, L. Lowery, S. Imada, and J. Haidt, 1999, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(4), p. 580 (https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.76.4.574). Copyright 1999 by the American Psychological Association.

License

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Psychology of Human Emotion. by Michelle Yarwood is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book