Figure 20 displays the two-dimensional models we discuss each chapter. Russell (1980) views positive emotions as highly pleasant, ranging from low to moderate to high arousal. Per this model, calm is low in arousal and moderately pleasant, while alert is high in arousal and moderately pleasant. Watson and Tellegen (1985) view true positive emotions to be those that are pleasant AND highly arousing, labeled High Positive Affect. Thus, low arousal positive emotions located on Low Negative Affect are not considered true emotions, which differs from Russell (1980).
Note. Russell (1980) model is on left; Watson and Tellegen (1985) model is on right. Left figure reproduced from “Independence and bipolarity in the structure of current affect,” by L. Feldman Barrett and J.A. Russell, 1998, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(4), p. 970 (https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.527). Copyright 1998 by the American Psychological Association. Right figure reproduced “Toward a consensual structure of mood.,” by D.T. Watson and A. Tellegen, 1985, Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), p. 221 (https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.219). Copyright 1985 by the American Psychological Association.