Chapter 13: Positive Emotions

Chapter 13 Learning Objectives

  • What positive emotions do researchers agree and disagree on?
  • Do any of the positive emotions appear to be mixed emotions?  Why?
  • When experiencing a positive emotion, how do the emotion components change?
  • According to Tong, which appraisals cause the experience of positive emotions? Do Tong’s findings provide support for universality or constructivism?
  • Compare and contrast evidence for universality and socially constructed facial expressions and vocal changes of positive emotions.
  • Do positive emotions activate the PNS, SNS, or both?
  • Compare and contrast the dimensional model views of positive emotions.
  • Explain the broaden-and-build theory and the research support for this theory.
  • Compare and contrast the broaden-and-build theory with the malleable mood effects hypothesis.
  • How are positive emotions associated with happiness? How can we increase happiness?  Should we always be happy?
  • What are the current problems with positive emotion research?


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