Chapter 8: Fear, Anxiety, and Stress

Chapter 8 Learning Objectives


  • What are the components changes of fear?
  • What evidence supports fear as a basic emotion?
  • What evidence supports fear as a socially constructed emotion?
  • What does current work on fear suggest is the adaptive purpose of fear?
  • What does the S.M. case tell us the amygdala’s role in fear and other emotions?
  • Does research on fear and the amygdala support the locationist or psychological constructionist theory?


  • Does anxiety meet the requirements for an emotion?  Why or why not?
  • What is the relationship between anxiety and attentional biases?
  • How are fear and anxiety similar? different?
  • How does the research on anxiety help us to better understand psychological disorders?


  • Is stress an emotion? Why or why not?
  • What is the difference between the General Adaptation Syndrome and Lazarus’ View of Stress?
  • Explain the importance of cognitive appraisals in the stress process.


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