Chapter 9: Anger
Summary of Anger
In this chapter, we discussed whether the emotion components for anger are basic or socially constructed. In general, anger does appear to be a highly intense negative emotion that activates the SNS system. Western and Eastern cultures do recognize the anger facial expression, but individuals living in isolated cultures often select the wrong facial expression. In some studies, isolated cultures like Bhutan recognize the growl as anger vocal change, but only a portion of the Himba did. More work is needed for changes in vocal sounds during an anger experience.
Several brain structures are activated during anger, with the amygdala and OFC being important. Each brain structure controls different aspects of the anger experience.
Research is conflicting on the required cognitive appraisals for anger. Scherer (1997) identified several appraisals that change during an anger experience, with cultural differences found for immorality and unfairness cognitive appraisals. Dollard et al. (1939) and Scherer (1997) both suggest a goal obstruction causes, while the CNA and GAM view the only required appraisals as unpleasantness caused by an aversive event.